Wednesday, December 2, 2009

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSTRUCTING MASJID IN ISLAM

When Prophet Mohammed (PBUH)
arrived in Madinah,
the first act he performed was
the building of a Masjid.

From the events of the emigration to Madinah, it is clear that the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) never stayed in any place unless he built a Masjid therein for the believers to gather. He built the Qubaa Masjid when he stayed there for four days. He also built a Masjid between Qubaa and Madinah when the time of the Friday prayer came while he was in the residence of the tribe of Salimibn Auf in the heart of Ranonaa’ Valley.

When he arrived in Madinah, the first act he performed was the building of a Masjid.

This indicates the importance of a Masjids in Islam. All acts of worship (ibadah) in Islam are for the purification of the soul, refinement of morals, and strengthening the ties of mutual cooperation among the Muslims. The congregational prayers and the Friday and Eid prayers are strong examples of the nature of the Muslim community and in the unity of their opinions, goals and cooperation in achieving righteousness and in fearing Allah.

Thus, if this is the case with the acts of worship, it is no wonder that Masjids carry a great social and spiritual place in the lives of the Muslims. The Masjid is the thing which unites them and their efforts. It refines their souls and awakens their minds and hearts. It solves their problems. The Masjid shows their strength and cohesiveness.


Is it not true that Abu Bakr (RA), `Umar (RA), `Uthman (RA), Ali (RA), Khalid (RA), Saad (RA), Abu Ubaidah (RA), and their likes from among the greats of Islamic history were but the students of the Muhammad’s school which was headquartered in the Prophet’s Masjid ?

Another special characteristic of the Masjid in Islam is that the word of truth emanates from them every week on the tongues of the preachers. The topic may be about forbidding evil and enjoining good or an invitation to do some good, an awakening for the heedless, an invitation to assembly, objections to a wrongdoer, or a warning about a tyrant.

If we see the Masjids crippled and not playing their great role today, it is due to the fault of some of their paid preachers, mercenaries or the ignorant. On the day when the strong leaders and the scholars of Islamic legislation, sincere to Allah and His Messenger, give advice to the leaders and common Muslims and ascend the pulpits and lead the prayers, on that day the Masjid will return to its leading position in the Islamic society. The Masjid will return to its role in raising real men, graduating heroes, reforming corruption, fighting evil and building society upon the foundation of fearing and pleasing Allah alone. We hope for this to take place, Allah willing, when the vanguard of our purified, believing youths, who are educated with Allah’s religion and who behave with the Prophet’s Mohammed (PBUH) manners, occupy the pulpits and the rooms of the Masjids.

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSTRUCTING MASJID IN ISLAM

by HAZARTH K.A.NIZAMUDDEEN

LISTEN HERE



If you would be interested in Constructing New Masjids in India, Contact Us and we would guide you to the places where they are needed the most. We would also suggest you to take a look at our ‘Masjid Appeals‘ section wherein existing Masjids need your assistance in fulfilling their requirements.
contact Ayub 99622 10628 .....mtj313@msn.com

ONGOING MASJID PROJECTS

KINDLY VISIT 


Spend your wealth for the cause of Allah, and be not cast by your own hands to ruin; and do good. Lo! Allah loveth the beneficent....AL-QURAN 2:195.

பாதையில் செலவு செய்யுங்கள்; இன்னும் உங்கள் கைகளாலேயே உங்களை அழிவின் பக்கம் கொண்டு செல்லாதீர்கள்; இன்னும், நன்மை செய்யுங்கள்; நிச்சயமாக அல்லாஹ் முஹ்ஸின்களை -நன்மை செய்வோரை- நேசிக்கின்றான்....AL-QURAN 2:195.

If you would be interested in Constructing New Masjids in India, and we would guide you to the places where they are needed the most. We would also suggest you to take a look at our ‘ section wherein existing Masjids need your assistance in fulfilling their requirements.

Contact lmt313@msn.com

Phone : + 91 9962210628 Ayub

-

WHO CAN MANAGE THE MASJID ?

THE MASJID OF ALLAH ARE ONLY TO BE MAINTAINED BY THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN ALLAH AND THE LAST DAY AND ESTABLISH PRAYER AND GIVE ZAKAH AND DO NOT FEAR EXCEPT ALLAH,FOR IT IS EXPECTED THAT THOSE WILL BE OF THE (Rightly) GUIDED -

Surat At-Tawbah 9:18

அல்லாஹ்வின் மஸ்ஜிதுகளைப் பரிபாலனம் செய்யக்கூடியவர்கள், அல்லாஹ்வின் மீதும் இறுதிநாள் மீதும் ஈமான் கொண்டு தொழுகையைக் கடைப்பிடித்து ஜக்காத்தை (முறையாகக்) கொடுத்து அல்லாஹ்வைத் தவிர வேறெதற்கும் அஞ்சாதவர்கள்தாம் - இத்தகையவர்கதாம் நிச்சயமாக நேர் வழி பெற்றவர்களில் ஆவார்கள்.

Surat At-Tawbah 9:18



WHO CAN MANAGE THE MASJID ?

by HAZARTH K.A.NIZAMUDDEEN

LISTEN HERE






===============

WHAT IS QUALIFICATION FOR
IMAMTH AND MUEZZIN IN MASJID
By HAZARTH
K.A.NIZAMUDDEEN

LISTEN HERE



ONGOING MASJID WORK IN CHENNAI INDIA




TAMILNADU


MASJID AT CHENNAI
Masjith Thaqwa (Takuwa)

No: 313 Pudu Nagar 8 th street, Vyasarpadi, Madras, Tamil nadu 600039, INDIA

CONTACT NO.99622 10628 ,94449 00624

EMAIL: mtj313@msn.com

http://chennaimasjid.blogspot.com/


Impression of the proposed MASJID

UNDER CONSTRUCTION
We would request you in the
name of ALMIGHTY ALLAH to assist
us by means of Money, Material and duas INSHA ALLAH to complete this project
in the shortest
time possible.

Mobile 9962210628 9444900624

The total cost of project comes around Rs.65 Lakhs. The Managing Committee are taking all the necessary steps to raise the funds. Beloved Brothers of Islam you are requested to donate to this noble cause which is `Sadaqathul Jaariya’ which will yield `Sawab’ till Qiyamath.












NEW REVISED DESIGN

OLD MASJID IN TENT






ONGOING WORKS

























Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in



--------------------------------------------------




Our QUAID E MILLATH JUMMA MASJID, was the first masjid in Vyasarpadi Chennai and has crossed 45 years.
since
its first part of construction which dates back to 1966 -24 Jumaada al-Akhirah-hijri 1386. Present Masjid has capacity of only 500 mommins to offer salah.

There are around 1200 muslim famlies living around the Masjid. Insha Allah It is proposed to demolish the existing masjid and construct a new one.

QUAID E MILLATH JUMMA Masjid Committee has decided to rebuild the Masjid in 6200Sq.ft, consisting of Three Floors to accommodate 1600 mommins. Insha Allah the ground level construction work for the masjid will be started in October 2012.

We request you to kindly help us to rebuild the Masjid with your donations & dua for us to complete the construction at the earliest.

Let us use this golden opportunity and contribute our mite by material / money / effect to construct the new Masjid building. For every good deed, Allah will reward us ten times here and in the Hereafter. Ameen, Yarabbai Aalameen.


Status of Old Masjid :

Constructed in year 1966

Land Measuring:6200 Sq.ft Area.

Number of floors: 1

Built up Area:4000 Sq.ft Area.

Capacity:500 Members only can pray.

-------------------
Status of New Masjid :

Insha Allah Ground level construction work for the new Masjid will be start on October-2012.

Estimated Cost for the Noble Project: 14375000/-

Land Measuring:6200 Sq.ft Area.

Number of floors: 3

Built up Area:11500 Sq.ft Area.

Capacity:1600 Members can pray.


INSHA ALLAH BY THE GRACE OF ALLAH..

WE CORDIALLY INVITE YOUR ESTEEMED PRESENCE

FOR THE FOUNDATION LAYING CEREMONY

(ADIKAL NAATU VILA) OF

QUAIDE MILLATH JUMMA MASJID MADHARASA

BY HAZRATH O.M.ABDUL KADER BAQAVI

DATE: 09 th JULY 2012TIME: ASAR 5 pm TILL ISHAVENUE: NO.975, 28th STREET

BAKTHAVATCHALAM NAGAR

NEAR: AMBEDKAR COLLEGE

VYASARPADI

CHENNAI 600039


TAMILNADU INDIA

KINDLY ATTEND THE CEREMONY MAKE

DUA & DONATE FOR THE NOBLE CAUSE
TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT SOON.
MAY ALLAH SHOWER HIS BLESSING
ON ALL OF US WITH IMAN AND BARAKA
IN ALL OUR LIFE & DEEDS -Aameen



Note : Cheque /D.D may please be drawn in favour of

" Q.M.J.M.M.CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE "
INDIAN OVERSEAS BANK
ACCOUNT NO - 039402000002301

IFS CODE - IOBA0000394
 BRANCH -VYSARPADI CHENNAI -39
TAMIL NADU INDIA




QUAIDE MILLATH JUMMA MASJID MADHARASA CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE
NO 975, 28th STREET
BAKTHAVATCHALAM NAGAR
VYASARPADICHENNAI,
TAMILNADU 600039
INDIA
Email : qjm313@hotmail.com
http://qjm313.blogspot.in/


Masjid Construction Committee

M.A.Mohammed Ayub
President
Mobile 0091-99622 10628

B.Ayduroos Naami
Secretary
Mobile 0091-96000 99635
0066-84099 9635

M.Shaul Hameed
Treasurer
Mobile 0091-94443 10312.



CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE

NO 975, 28th STREET

BAKTHAVATCHALAM NAGAR

VYASARPADI

CHENNAI 600039

TAMILNADU INDIA

Email : qmjmmcc@gmail.com

qjm313@hotmail.com





Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in



Impression of the proposed

MASJID 
in Sripermbadur

JUMMA  MASJID SRIPERMBADUR 

GANDHI ROAD Near Bus Stand

SRIPERMBADUR
KANCHIPURAM DIST 602105 
 

Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


=============================
Impression of the proposed

MASJID 
in CHETPET 
 
HAZARTH UMER E FAROOK MASJID 
80 MC NICHOLS ROAD CHETPET CHENNAI -31


Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


============================

MASJID  AL-FATH ENNORE




Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in



==========================
Impression of the proposed

MASJID 
in THIRUVOTTIYUR

THIRUVOTTIYUR JUMMA MASJID

 
Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


==========================
 Impression of the proposed

MASJID 
in ATHIPATU


Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


==========================


MASJID DAWATHUL HUDA


Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


=========================
Impression of the proposed

MASJID 
in VYASARPADI
MASJID AQSA
NO 1, DAMODARAN NAGAR (MGR NAGAR)

VYASARPADI CHENNAI 600039

NEAR SATHYAMOORTY NAGAR
VYASARPADI
OPP:BHARTHI NAGAR BUS DEPOT
CONTACT AYUB 9962210628,9884138655
 





We would request you in the name of ALMIGHTY ALLAH to assist us by means of Money, Material and duas INSHA ALLAH to complete this project in the shortest time possible. By Almighty Allah’s grace, Insha ALLAH the expansion work going to Start MASJID AQSA”, Chennai . Alhamdhulillah! The total cost of project comes around Rs.25 Lakhs. The Managing Committee are taking all the necessary steps to raise the funds. Beloved Brothers of Islam you are requested to donate to this noble cause which is `Sadaqathul Jaariya’ which will yield `Sawab’ till Qiyamath.
Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES 

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


-------------------------------------------------


MASJID & MADRASA LAJNATHUL MUHSINEEN

No 12/21 ,12 th Street VINOBA NAGAR


TONDAIYARPET

CHENNAI .600081



By Almighty Allah’s grace, Insha ALLAH the expansion work going to Start MASJID & MADRASA LAJNATHUL MUHSINEEN, Chennai Alhamdhulillah! The total cost of project comes around Rs.15 Lakhs. The Managing Committee are taking all the necessary steps to raise the funds. Beloved Brothers of Islam you are requested to donate to this noble cause which is `Sadaqathul Jaariya’ which will yield `Sawab’ till Qiyamath.
Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:

RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES 

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in



----------------------------------------

MASJID LAJANTHUL MUHSINEEN

42,SALAI VINAYGAR KOIL STREET MANNADY,

Madras, TAMILNDAU 600001,
INDIA




Impression of the proposed MASJID We would request you in the name of ALMIGHTY ALLAH to assist us by means of Money, Material and duas INSHA ALLAH to complete this project in the shortest time possible.
Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:
RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


-----------------------------------------------------

Impression of the proposed

MASJID


in ORAGADAM
(Ambattur)

Email : masjidnooralm@hotmail.com




Masjid Architecture Designer and Consultant:
RAYAN IBRAHIM ASSOCIATES

Raheja Towers, Omega Wing,
3rd floor, 117. Anna Salai,
Chennai - 600 002
Email: drawings@ibstudio.in
Web: www.ibstudio.in


-------------------------------------

MASJID E MAMOOR
No 499 Ambedakar Nagar

Sirnagavoor

( NEAR ALLAMATTI REDHILLS )

Chennai 600052

Tamil Nadu India






MORE DETIAL KINDLY VISIT>>>>>> http://masjid-construction.blogspot.in/

--------------------------

READY MADE MINAR FOR MASJID



LOW COST, PRESERVE ISLAMIC ART,

EXPRESS INSTALLATION OF

MINAARA'S & JAALYS

WE SUPPLY & CONSTRUCT

MINAARA'S AND JAALYS

AT LOWER COST. MINAARA'S

AVAILABLE FROM 3FEET TO 40 FEET.

A SPECIFIC SKILLED MUSLIMS PERSON

FROM RAJASTHAN STATE CONSTRUCT

THE MINAARA'S AT LOWER WAGES.

WE EXPRESS OUR JOB IN A

SERVICE MOTIVE BASIS





A & A AGENCIES


CEMENT PRODUCTS READY MADE
RCC PRECAST MINAR FOR MASJID

AUTHORISED DEALER & SERVICE FOR

TAMILNADU & KERALA

CONTACT HAJI N.A.TAHEER
HEAD OFFICE 1, BHAVANDIAR 7th STREET,

KAMARAJAPURAM,CHEMAPAKKAM,SELAIYUR

CHENNAI-600073.
MOBILE +91 98401 30488 +91 94440 25616

+91 93809 76444
Email: n.a.taheer10@gmail.com

------------------------------------------------
ANEES KAIFEE AZMI
BRANCH OFFICE NO.5, VALLIAMMAI ARANGAM

ISMAILPURAM, 12th STREET,MUNICHALAI ROAD

MADURAI -9
MOBILE +91 94420 92031





-----------------------------------------
Precast minarets for MASJID
Readymade minars for MASJIDS New Delhi: In the age of science and technology while outstanding success has been witnessed in architectures of all kinds, minar (towers/minarets) of mosques had remained a perpetual problem. Traditional masons who build mosques are ignorant about the “minar” technology and hence even after completion of MASJIDS, minars have to wait till a competent designer, architect and engineer in minar technology is found to undertake the challenging task. Now, even this tricky problem has been solved and readymade R.C.C. minars of different sizes and designs are readily available. Thanks to the enterprising skill of Muhammad Tahir of Mewat. He has begun producing these as “Ayubi Minar”. While the traditional process used to take 5-10 months of time for completion; Ayubi Minar can be erected within five days. He has been providing this service for the last ten years. Several mosques in Delhi, UP, Haryana and Rajasthan have been adorned by him.

---------------------------------------------

A Gujarat based company has come up with readymade minarets that could be unpacked and assembled Readymade minarets! Just buy the components and assemble them. It might sound incredible! But be ready for rubbing your eyes in disbelief. A Gujarat based sanitary ware company, namely Aman Sanitary Ware has come up with the idea and has so far sold several sets of components to managements of upcoming mosques across the country to just buy the components off its shelves and assemble them into full sized minarets. (see pictures). Aman Sanitary Wares began to develop small sized minarets around the turn of the century. These components made in concrete were ready for assembling. Now the company has got into full fledged production of components in varying designs which could be joined together to erect minarets ranging between 7 feet and 30 feet. According to the Company’s Karnataka representative H. Ataullah Baig, several mosques in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Delhi have erected minarets by just assembling the components of the Aman Sanitary Wares. Even a mosque in the Aligarh Muslim University opted for readymade minaret. Hafiz Mohammad Maaz Yusuf, one of the partners of the company on being reached on telephone, informed that the pre-cast minarets were conceived by the company after it felt the need in view of mosque structures being left without minarets due to excessive cost. Since minarets do not make functional parts of the mosques, their construction was postponed due to paucity of funds. But the pre-cast minarets produced by Aman bring down the cost by as much as 50 per cent. Mr. Ataullah Baig told Islamic Voice that the components come in the shell form and have to be joined together on a three feet high solid concrete pedestal on the corner pillars on the roof. The hollow shells have to be filled with cement while steel rods are placed inside. These also have provision for wiring for lighting and deploying microphones. Hafiz Maaz claimed that the product was tested adequately at his workshop in Palanpur and the components are cured sufficiently for 15 days in cisterns. He said Masjid Ibrahim in Palanpur has erected the readymade minarets. He said, the cost works out to be Rs. 1600 for each feet of minaret which is even less than half of the conventional construction cost. He said his company has so far erected about 600 such minarets in various places and the first such mosques with readymade minarets were coming up in Bijapur and Bangalore in Karnataka. He claimed that the minarets can withstand storms, lightning and rains. The company produces even the parapets with jalis that adorn the various levels of the minarets. Against a construction period of two months for conventional minarets, a 30-feet pre-cast minaret could be erected within merely four days. More details can be had from:HAJI N.A.TAHEER

MOBILE +91 98401 30488 +91 94440 25616

+91 93809 76444


ABOUT MASJID AND QIBLA

A MASJID (/mɒsk/; Arabic:مسجد) is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word entered English from a French word which probably derived from Italian moschea, a variant of Italian moscheta, from either Armenian mzkiṭ or Greek μασγίδιον, from Arabic masjid, meaning "place of worship" or "prostration in prayer", from the Arabic sajada, meaning "to bow down in prayer" or "worship", probably ultimately of Aramaic origin.[1]
There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni fiqh for a place of worship to be considered a masjid, with places that do not meet these requirements regarded as musallas.[2] There are stringent restrictions on the uses of the area formally demarcated as the masjid (which is often a small portion of the larger complex), and, in the Sharia, after an area is formally designated as a masjid, it remains so until the Last Day.[2]
Quba Mosque is the first mosque in history, and mosques have developed significantly since Quba mosque. Many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents. The mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salah (prayer) (Arabic: صلاة‎, ṣalāt) as well as a center for information, education, and dispute settlement. The imam leads the prayer.
---------------------------------------
The Qibla (Arabic: قبلة‎, "direction"), also transliterated as Qiblah, Kiblah, Kıble or Kibla, is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during salah. It is fixed as the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. Most mosques contain a wall niche, known as mihrab, that indicates the Qiblah. Most multifaith prayer rooms will also contain a Qibla, although usually less standardized in appearance than one would find within a mosque.[1]
Muslims all praying towards the same point is traditionally considered to symbolize the unity of all Muslims worldwide under Law of God.
The Qiblah has importance beyond salaat and plays a part in various ceremonies. The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the Qiblah. After death, Muslims are buried with their heads turned right towards the direction of the Qiblah. Thus, archaeology can indicate an Islamic necropolis if no other signs are present.

Contents

History


The former Qiblah of Islam pointed towards the Temple Mount in Jerusalem where now stands the Al-Aqsa Mosque

Masjid al-Qiblatain is the place where the Qiblah was switched towards Mecca
According to the traditional Muslim view, the Qiblah originally faced the Noble Sanctuary in Jerusalem. This Qiblah was used for over 13 years, from 610 CE until 623 CE. Seventeen months after the Islamic prophet Muhammad's 622 CE arrival in Medina – the date is given as 11 February 624 – the Qiblah became oriented towards the Kaaba in Mecca.[2][3] According to traditional accounts from Muhammad's companions, the change happened very suddenly during the noon prayer in Medina, in a mosque now known as Masjid al-Qiblatain (Mosque of the Two Qiblahs).[3] Muhammad was leading the prayer when he received revelations from God instructing him to take the Kaaba as the Qiblah (literally, "Turn then Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque:").[3][4] According to the traditional accounts contained in the hadith and sira, Muhammad, who had been facing Jerusalem, upon receiving this revelation, immediately turned around to face Mecca, and those praying behind him also did so.[3]
Some have claimed that the Qur'an does not identify or allude to Jerusalem as being the first Qiblah and that the practise of facing Jerusalem is only mentioned in traditional biographies of Muhammad and hadith collections.[5] There is also disagreement as to when the practice started and for how long it lasted.[5] Some sources say the Jerusalem Qiblah was used for a period of between sixteen to eighteen months.[6] The Jewish custom of facing Jerusalem for prayer may have influenced the Muslim Qiblah.[7] Others surmise that the use of Jerusalem as the direction of prayer was to either induce the Jews of Medina to convert to Islam or to "win over their hearts."[6] When relations with the Jews soured, Muhammad changed the Qiblah towards Mecca.[7] Another reason given why the Qiblah was changed is that Jews viewed the use of Jerusalem as signalling the Muslims' intention of joining their religion. It was changed to discredit this assumption.[6] Others state that it was changed because Muhammad was angered by that city or its people, and not because of his conflict with the Jews.
The Qiblah, for any point of reference on the Earth, is the direction of the Kaaba. Some Muslims from North America determine this direction using a rhumb line, while most Muslims worldwide use a great circle. In Muslim religious practice, supplicants must face this direction in prayer. Muslims do not worship the Kaaba or its contents; the Kaaba is simply a focal point for prayer.
In ancient times, Muslims travelling abroad used an astrolabe to find the Qiblah.[citation needed]
Cheraman Juma Masjid is a mosque in the south Indian state of Kerala. Believed to be built in 7th century CE by Malik Bin Deenar, it is thought to be the oldest mosque in India, and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers.[8][9] Constructed during the lifetime of Muhammad, the bodies of some of his original followers are said to be buried there.[10] Unlike other mosques in Kerala state, which face westwards (towards the Qiblah), this mosque faces eastwards.[8]

Qibla determinations


A mihrab at the 16th century Jama Masjid, Fatehpur Sikri, indicating Qiblah
From whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do. So from whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; and wheresoever ye are, Turn your face thither: that there be no ground of dispute against you among the people, except those of them that are bent on wickedness; so fear them not, but fear Me; and that I may complete My favours on you, and ye May (consent to) be guided;
—Qur'an, sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayat 149 - 150[11]
It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces Towards east or West; but it is righteousness- to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the Allah-fearing.
—Qur'an, sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayah 177[12]
The two moments in each year when the sun is directly overhead the Kaaba, the direction of shadows in any sunlit place will point directly away from the Qiblah. This happens on May 27 or May 28 at 9:18 GMT and on July 15 or July 16 at 9:27 GMT. Likewise there are two moments in each year when the Sun is directly over the antipodes of the Kaaba. This happens on January 12 or January 13 at 21:29 GMT and on November 28 at 21:09 GMT. Because the Earth is almost a sphere, this is almost the same as saying that the Qiblah from a place is the direction in which a bird would start flying in order to get to the Kaaba by the shortest possible way. The antipodes of the Kaaba is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, in remote southern French Polynesia, some 35 mi (56 km) northeast of Tematangi atoll and 85 mi (137 km) west-northwest of Moruroa atoll.

Islamic mathematics

Determining the direction of the Qiblah was a central issue and a constant generator of a scientific environment during the Islamic Golden Age, one that required both mathematics and observation. Muslim scientists who contributed works to determine the Qiblah direction from any point on the Earth's surface were: Al-Khawarizmi, Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi, Al-Nayrizi, Al-Battani, Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī, Ibn Yunus, Al-Sijzi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Biruni, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Ibn al-Shatir, and Al-Khalili, among others.[13]

North-American interpretations


The shortest direction to Kaaba in Mecca from all over the World
In recent years, Muslims from North America have used two rules to determine the direction of the Qiblah. According to spherical calculations, a Muslim praying from Anchorage, Alaska would pray almost due north if determining the Qiblah. However, when one looks at the world on most Mercator map projections, Mecca appears to be southeast of Anchorage. The shortest rhumb line (line of constant bearing) from most points in North America to Mecca will point toward the southeast, but the distance to Mecca along this route on the actual surface of the earth is longer than the great circle route.
The vast majority of Muslim communities in North America face toward the northeast, following the great circle route. A minority faces towards the southeast according to traditional early Islamic methods including sighting the stars, sun, wind, etc.[14]
Most Qiblah-calculating programs (see list below) use the great circle method and place the Qiblah northeast from most points in North America.

From space

In April 2006, Malaysian National Space Agency (Angkasa) sponsored a conference[15] of scientists and religious scholars to address the issue of how the Qiblah should be determined when one is in orbit. The conference concluded that the astronaut should determine the location of the Qiblah "according to [their] capability".[16] There have already been several Muslim astronauts, among them the very first being Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (1985), the latest being the first Muslim woman in space Anousheh Ansari (2006) and the Malaysian angkasawan Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor (2007).

History


The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, was built in 670 and is the most prestigious mosque in the western Islamic world.[3]
Grand entryways and tall towers, or minarets, have long been and continue to be closely associated with mosques. However, the first three masajid were very simple open spaces on the Arabian Peninsula. Mosques evolved significantly over the next 1,000 years, acquiring their now-distinctive features and adapting to cultures around the world.

Diffusion and evolution

Mosques were built outside the Arabian Peninsula as Muslims moved to other parts of the world. Egypt became occupied by Muslim Arabs as early as 640, and since then so many mosques have appeared throughout the country that its capital city, Cairo, has acquired the nickname of city of a thousand minarets.[4] Egyptian mosques vary in amenities, as some have Islamic schools (madrasahs) while others have hospitals or tombs.[5] Built soon after the conquest of northwest Africa, the first mosque built in this region is the Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia) founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi during the second half of the 7th century and considered as the oldest place of worship in the western Islamic world.[6][7] The Great Mosque of Kairouan, which is one of the most significant and best preserved examples of early Islamic mosques,[7] served due to its architectural characteristics as a model to many later mosques especially in north Africa and Al-Andalus.[6] Mosques in Sicily and Spain do not primarily reflect the architecture of Visigothic predecessors, but instead reflect the architecture introduced by the Muslim Moors.[8] It is hypothesized, however, that there were some elements of pre-Islamic architecture which were Islamicized into Andalusi and Maghribi architecture, for example, the distinctive horseshoe arch.[9]

Inside the Friday Mosque of Herat, which is one of the oldest mosques in Afghanistan.
The first Chinese mosque was established in the 8th century in Xi'an. The Great Mosque of Xi'an, whose current building dates from the 18th century, does not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, it follows traditional Chinese architecture. It is distinguished from other buildings by its green roof (Buddhist temples are often built with a yellow roof). Mosques in western China incorporate more traditional elements seen in mosques in other parts of the world. Western Chinese mosques were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.[10]
By the 15th century, Islam had become the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra, Indonesia's two most populous islands. As with Hinduism and Buddhism before it, the new religion and its accompanying foreign influences were absorbed and reinterpreted, with mosques given a unique Indonesian/Javanese interpretation. At the time, Javanese mosques took many design cues from Hindu, Buddhist, and even Chinese architectural influences. They lacked, for example, the ubiquitous Islamic dome which did not appear in Indonesia until the 19th century, but had tall timber, multi-level roofs not too dissimilar to the pagodas of Balinese Hindu temples still common today. A number of significant early mosques survive, particularly along the north coast of Java. These include the Mesjid Agung back in Demak, built in 1474, and the Grand Mosque of Yogyakarta that feature multi-level roofs. Javanese styles in turn influenced the architectural styles of mosques among Indonesia's Austronesian neighbors: Malaysia, Brunei and the southern Philippines.
In India, the first mosque has been claimed as Cheraman Juma Masjid in the early 7th century, but this claim is dubious. They diffused into a majority of India only during the reign of the Mughal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Mughals brought their own form of architecture that included pointed, onion-shaped domes, as seen in Delhi's Jama Masjid. Mughal style became the dominant feature in many of the old mosques in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Mosques first arrived in the Ottoman Empire (mostly present-day Turkey) during the 11th century, when many local Turks converted to Islam. Several of the first mosques in the Ottoman Empire, such as the Hagia Sophia in present-day Istanbul, were originally churches or cathedrals in the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans created their own design of mosques, which included large central domes, multiple minarets, and open facades. The Ottoman style of mosque usually included elaborate columns, aisles, and high ceilings in the interior, while incorporating traditional elements, such as the mihrab.[11] Today, Turkey is still home to many mosques that display this Ottoman style of architecture.
Mosques gradually diffused to different parts of Europe, but the most rapid growth in the number of mosques has occurred within the past century as more Muslims have migrated to the continent. Major European cities, such as Rome, London, and Munich, are home to mosques that feature traditional domes and minarets. These large mosques in urban centers are supposed to serve as community and social centers for a large group of Muslims that occupy the region. However, one can still find smaller mosques in more suburban and rural regions throughout Europe where Muslims populate, an example of this is the Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking, the first purpose built mosque in the UK.
Mosques first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century, the likely first being one in Maine built by Albanian immigrants in 1915.[12] as more immigrants continue to arrive in the country, especially from South Asia, the number of American mosques is increasing faster than ever before. Whereas only two percent of the country's mosques appeared in the United States before 1950, eighty-seven percent of American mosques were founded after 1970 and fifty percent of American mosques founded after 1980.[13]

Conversion of places of worship


A mosque in the Roxbury section of Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States.
According to early Muslim historians, towns that surrendered without resistance and made treaties with the Muslims gave the Muslims permission to take their churches and synagogues. One of the earliest examples of these kinds of conversions was in Damascus, Syria, where in 705 Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I bought the church of St. John from the Christians and had it rebuilt as a mosque in exchange for building a number of new churches for the Christians in Damascus. Overall, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Al-Waleed's father) is said to have transformed 10 churches in Damascus into mosques.[14]
The process of turning churches into mosques was especially intensive in the villages where most of the inhabitants converted to Islam. The Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun turned many churches into mosques. Ottoman Turks converted nearly all churches, monasteries, and chapels in Constantinople, including the famous Hagia Sophia, immediately after capturing the city in 1453 into mosques. In some instances mosques have been established on the places of Jewish or Christian sanctuaries associated with Biblical personalities who were also recognized by Islam.[15]
Mosques have also been converted for use by other religions, notably in southern Spain, following the conquest of the Moors in 1492.[16] The most prominent of them is the Great Mosque of Cordoba. The Iberian Peninsula and southeast Europe are other regions in the world where such instances occurred once no longer under Muslim rule.

Religious functions

The masjid jāmi', a central mosque, can play a role in religious activities such as teaching the Quran and educating future imams.

Prayers


Inside the Istiqlal Mosque, in Jakarta, Indonesia, during Eid ul-Fitr.
There are two holidays (Eids) in the Islamic calendar, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha during which there are special prayers held at mosques in the morning. These Eid prayers are supposed to be offered in large groups, and so larger mosques will normally host them for their congregants as well as the congregants of smaller local mosques. Some mosques will even rent convention centers or other large public buildings to hold the large number of Muslims who attend. Mosques, especially those in countries where Muslims are the majority, will also host Eid prayers outside in courtyards, town squares or on the outskirts of town in an Eidgah.[17][18]

Ramadan events

Islam's holiest month, Ramadan, is observed through many events. As Muslims must fast during the day during Ramadan, mosques will host iftar dinners after sunset and the fourth required prayer of the day, maghrib. Food is provided, at least in part, by members of the community, thereby creating nightly potluck dinners. Because of the community contribution necessary to serve iftar dinners, mosques with smaller congregations may not be able to host the iftar dinners daily. Some mosques will also hold suhoor meals before dawn to congregants attending the first required prayer of the day, fajr. As with iftar dinners, congregants usually provide the food for suhoor, although able mosques may provide food instead. Mosques will often invite poorer members of the Muslim community to share in beginning and breaking the fasts, as providing charity during Ramadan is regarded in Islam as especially honorable.[19]
Following the last obligatory daily prayer (Isha') special, optional tarawih prayers are offered in larger mosques. During each night of prayers, which can last for up to two hours each night, usually one member of the community who has memorized the entire Quran (a Hafiz) will recite a segment of the book.[20] Sometimes, several such people (not necessarily of the local community) take turns to do this. During the last ten days of Ramadan, larger mosques will host all-night programs to observe Laylat al-Qadr, the night Muslims believe that Muhammad first received Quranic revelations.[20] On that night, between sunset and sunrise, mosques employ speakers to educate congregants in attendance about Islam. Mosques or the community usually provide meals periodically throughout the night.
During the last ten days of Ramadan, larger mosques within the Muslim community will host Iʿtikāf, a practice in which at least one Muslim man from the community must participate. Muslims performing itikaf are required to stay within the mosque for ten consecutive days, often in worship or learning about Islam. As a result, the rest of the Muslim community is responsible for providing the participants with food, drinks, and whatever else they need during their stay.[20]

Charity

The third of the Five Pillars of Islam states that Muslims are required to give approximately one-fortieth of their wealth to charity as zakat.[21] Since mosques form the center of Muslim communities, they are where Muslims go to both give zakat and, if necessary, collect it. Prior to the holiday of Eid ul-Fitr, mosques also collect a special zakat that is supposed to assist in helping poor Muslims attend the prayers and celebrations associated with the holiday.

Contemporary political roles


Muslim men standing outside an Islamic center in Little Harwood, United Kingdom.
The late 20th century saw an increase in the number of mosques used for political purposes. Today, civic participation is commonly promoted in mosques in the Western world. Because of the importance in the community, mosques are used for preaching peaceful coexistence with non-believers, even in times of adversity.
Large mosques sometimes play a political role as well. In Islamic countries like Pakistan, Iran, and Iraq (after 2003), political subjects are preached by imams at Friday congregations on a regular basis.[22] In other Islamic countries, imams are usually banned from mentioning political issues.

Advocacy

Countries with a minority Muslim population are more likely than Muslim-majority countries of the Greater Middle East to use mosques as a way to promote civic participation.[23] American mosques host voter registration and civic participation drives that promote involving Muslims, who are often first- or second-generation immigrants, in the political process. As a result of these efforts as well as attempts at mosques to keep Muslims informed about the issues facing the Muslim community, regular mosque attendants are more likely to participate in protests, sign petitions, and otherwise be involved in politics.[23]
Nevertheless, a link between political views and mosque attendance can still be seen in other parts of the world.[24] Following the al-Askari Mosque bombing in February 2006, imams and other Islamic leaders used mosques and Friday prayers as vehicles to call for calm and peace in the midst of widespread violence.[25]

Social conflict


The 16th Century Babri Mosque in India was destroyed by Hindu demonstrators in 1992.
As they are considered important to the Muslim community, mosques, like other places of worship, can be at the heart of social conflicts. The Babri Mosque was the subject of such a conflict up until the early 1990s when it was demolished. Before a mutual solution could be devised, the mosque was destroyed on December 6, 1992 as the mosque was built by Babur allegedly on the site of a previous Hindu temple marking the birthplace of Rama.[26] The controversy surrounded the mosque was directly linked to rioting in Bombay (present-day Mumbai) as well as bombings in 1993 that killed 257 people.[27]
A February 2006 and June 2007 bombing that seriously damaged Iraq's al-Askari Mosque, exacerbated tensions that had already existed. Other mosque bombings in Iraq, both before and after the February 2006 bombing, have been part of the conflict between the country's groups of Muslims. However, mosque bombings have not been exclusive to Iraq; in June 2005, a suicide bomber killed at least 19 people at an Afghan Shia mosque near Jade Maivand.[28] In April 2006, two explosions occurred at India's Jama Masjid.[citation needed]
Following the September 11 attacks, several American mosques were targeted in attacks ranging from simple vandalism to arson.[29] Furthermore, the Jewish Defense League was suspected of plotting to bomb the King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California.[30] Similar attacks occurred throughout the United Kingdom following the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Outside the Western world, in June 2001, the Hassan Bek Mosque was the target of vandalism and attacks by hundreds of Israelis.[31][32][33]

Saudi influence


Funded by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is the largest mosque in Pakistan.
Although the Saudi involvement in mosques around the world can be traced back to the 1960s, it was not until later in the 20th century that the government of Saudi Arabia became a large influence in foreign mosques.[34] Beginning in the 1980s, the Saudi Arabian government began to finance the construction of mosques in countries around the world. An estimated US$45 billion has been spent by the Saudi Arabian government financing mosques and Islamic schools in foreign countries. Ain al-Yaqeen, a Saudi newspaper, reported in 2002 that Saudi funds may have contributed to building as many as 1,500 mosques and 2,000 other Islamic centers.[35]
Saudi citizens have also contributed significantly to mosques in the Islamic world, especially in countries where they see Muslims as poor and oppressed. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, in 1992, mosques in war-torn Afghanistan saw many contributions from Saudi citizens.[34] The King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California and the Islamic Cultural Center of Italy in Rome represent two of Saudi Arabia's largest investments in foreign mosques as former Saudi king Fahd bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud contributed US$8 million[34] and US$50 million[36] to the two mosques, respectively.

Architecture

Styles


The Shah Mos‏que in Iran represents Iranian architecture. It was constructed during the Persian Safavid dynasty.
Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques have square or rectangular plans with an enclosed courtyard and covered prayer hall. Historically, in the warm Middle Eastern and Mediterranean climates, the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshippers during Friday prayers. Most early hypostyle mosques had flat roofs on prayer halls, which required the use of numerous columns and supports.[15] One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Great Mosque of Cordoba in Spain, the building being supported by over 850 columns.[37] Frequently, hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy the shade. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties; subsequently, however, the simplicity of the Arab plan limited the opportunities for further development, the mosques consequently losing popularity.[15]
The first separate brand within mosque designs started appearing in Persia (Iran). The Persians had inherited a rich architectural legacy from the earlier Persian dynasties, and they started incorporating elements from earlier Parthian and Sassanid palace-designs into their mosques, influenced by buildings such as the Palace of Ardashir and the Sarvestan Palace.[38] Thus, Islamic architecture started witnessing the introduction of such structures as domes and large, arched entrances, referred to as iwans. During Seljuq rule, as Islamic mysticism was on the rise, the four-iwan arrangement took form. The four-iwan format, finalized by the Seljuqs, and later inherited by the Safavids, firmly established the courtyard facade of such mosques, with the towering gateways at every side, as more important than the actual buildings themselves,[38] and they typically took the form of a square-shaped, central courtyard with large entrances at each side, giving the impression of being gateways to the spiritual world.[39] Soon, a distinctly Persian style of mosques started appearing that would significantly influence the designs of later Timurid, and also Mughal, mosque designs.
The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century. These mosques have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having a large central dome, a common feature is smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed.[40] This style was heavily influenced by Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes.[15] Hajja Soad's mosque took a pyramid shape which is a creative style in Islamic architecture.
The Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan in a relatively unusual design fuses contemporary lines with the more traditional look of an Arab Bedouin's tent, with its large triangular prayer hall and four minarets. However, unlike traditional mosque design, it lacks a dome. The mosque's architecture is a departure from the long history of South Asian Islamic architecture. It is one of the most outstanding and modern Islamic architecture examples in the world.
Mosques built in Southeast Asia often represent the Indonesian-Javanese style architecture, which are different from the ones found throughout the Greater Middle East. The ones found in Europe and North America appear to have various styles but most are built on Western artchitectural designs, some are former churches or other buildings that were used by non-Muslims. In Africa, most mosques are old but the new ones are built to give it a look of the Greater Middle East. This can be seen in the Abuja National Mosque in Nigeria and others.

Minarets


The Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.
A common feature in mosques is the minaret, the tall, slender tower that usually is situated at one of the corners of the mosque structure. The top of the minaret is always the highest point in mosques that have one, and often the highest point in the immediate area. The tallest minaret in the world is located at the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco.[41]

Minarets in Masjid Al-Haram
The first mosques had no minarets, and even nowadays the most conservative Islamic movements, like Wahhabis, avoid building minarets, seeing them as ostentatious and hazardous in case of collapse. The first minaret was constructed in 665 in Basra during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Muawiyah encouraged the construction of minarets, as they were supposed to bring mosques on par with Christian churches with their bell towers. Consequently, mosque architects borrowed the shape of the bell tower for their minarets, which were used for essentially the same purpose — calling the faithful to prayer.[42] The oldest standing minaret in the world is the minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia,[43][44] built between the 8th and the 9th century, it is a massive square tower consisting of three superimposed tiers of gradual size and decor.[45]
Before the five required daily prayers, a muezzin calls the worshippers to prayer from the minaret. In many countries like Singapore where Muslims are not the majority, mosques are prohibited from loudly broadcasting the call to prayer (adhan), although it is supposed to be said loudly to the surrounding community. The adhan is required before every prayer. However, nearly every mosque assigns a muezzin for each prayer to say the adhan as it is a recommended practice or sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. At mosques that do not have minarets, the adhan is called instead from inside the mosque or somewhere else on the ground.[20] The iqama, which is similar to the adhan and said immediately before the start of prayer, is usually not said from the minaret even if a mosque has one.

Mihrab


Prophet Mohammad Mihrab in Masjid al-nabawi
Mihrab is semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying. The wall in which a mihrab appears is thus the "qibla wall."
Mihrabs should not be confused with the minbar, which is the raised platform from which an Imam (leader of prayer) addresses the congregation.

Domes

The domes, often placed directly above the main prayer hall, may signify the vaults of heaven and the sky.[46] As time progressed, domes grew, from occupying a small part of the roof near the mihrab to encompassing the whole roof above the prayer hall. Although domes normally took on the shape of a hemisphere, the Mughals in India popularized onion-shaped domes in South Asia.[47] Some mosques have multiple, often smaller, domes in addition to the main large dome that resides at the center.

Prayer hall

The prayer hall, also known as the musallah, rarely has furniture; chairs and pews are generally absent from the prayer hall so as to allow as many worshipers as possible to line the room.[48] Some mosques have Islamic calligraphy and Quranic verses on the walls to assist worshippers in focusing on the beauty of Islam and its holiest book, the Quran, as well as for decoration.[20]
Often, a limited part of the prayer hall is sanctified formally as a masjid in the sharia sense (although the term masjid is also used for the larger mosque complex as well). Once designated, there are onerous limitations on the use of this formally designated masjid, and it may not be used for any purpose other than worship; restrictions that do not necessarily apply to other areas of the mosque complex (although such uses may be restricted by the conditions of the waqf that owns the mosque).[2]
In many mosques, especially the early congregational mosques, the prayer hall has the hypostyle form (the roof held up by a multitude of columns).[49] One of the finest examples of the hypostyle-plan mosques is the Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in Tunisia.[50]
Usually opposite the entrance to the prayer hall is the qiblah wall, the visually emphasized area inside the prayer hall. The qiblah wall should, in a properly oriented mosque, be set perpendicular to a line leading to Mecca, the location of the Kaaba.[51] Congregants pray in rows parallel to the qiblah wall and thus arrange themselves so they face Mecca. In the qiblah wall, usually at its center, is the mihrab, a niche or depression indicating the direction of Mecca. Usually the mihrab is not occupied by furniture either. Sometimes, especially during Friday prayers, a raised minbar or pulpit is located to the side of the mihrab for a khatib or some other speaker to offer a sermon (khutbah). The mihrab serves as the location where the imam leads the five daily prayers on a regular basis.[52]

Ablution facilities


The wudu (or ablution) area, where Muslims wash their hands, forearm, face and feet before they pray.
As ritual purification precedes all prayers, mosques often have ablution fountains or other facilities for washing in their entryways or courtyards. However, worshippers at much smaller mosques often have to use restrooms to perform their ablutions. In traditional mosques, this function is often elaborated into a freestanding building in the center of a courtyard.[37] This desire for cleanliness extends to the prayer halls where shoes are disallowed to be worn anywhere other than the cloakroom. Thus, foyers with shelves to put shoes and racks to hold coats are commonplace among mosques.[48]

Contemporary features


A basement mosque in Stockholm, Sweden.
Modern mosques have a variety of amenities available to their congregants. As mosques are supposed to appeal to the community, they may also have additional facilities, from health clinics to libraries to gymnasiums, to serve the community.

Makeshift and temporary structures for Islamic worship

A temporary place set aside for Islamic worship is called a musalla (Jama'at Khana in South Asia). A musallah is often not part of a permanent endowment (waqf), or it is otherwise not intended to become a permanent legal masjid (as defined in the Sharia). Often musallas are used while a community looks for a piece of land for a permanent masjid, or the establishment of a masjid is not practical at the time. They could be located in rented apartments, industrial units or store fronts.[2]

Rules and etiquette

Mosques, in accordance with Islamic practices, institute a number of rules intended to keep Muslims focused on worshipping God. While there are several rules, such as those regarding not allowing shoes in the prayer hall, that are universal, there are many other rules that are dealt with and enforced in a variety of ways from mosque to mosque.

Prayer leader


Muslims praying inside a mosque in Netherlands, Europe.
Appointment of a prayer leader is considered desirable, but not always obligatory.[53] The permanent prayer leader (imam) must be a free honest individual and is authoritative in religious matters.[53] In mosques constructed and maintained by the government, the prayer leader is appointed by the ruler;[53] in private mosques, however, appointment is made by members of the congregation through majority voting. According to the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence, the individual who built the mosque has a stronger claim to the title of imam, but this view is not shared by the other schools.[53]
Leadership at prayer falls into three categories, depending on the type of prayer: five daily prayers, Friday prayer, or optional prayers.[53] According to the Hanafi and Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, appointment of a prayer leader for Friday service is mandatory because otherwise the prayer is invalid. The Shafi'i and Hanbali schools, however, argue that the appointment is not necessary and the prayer is valid as long as it is performed in a congregation. A slave may lead a Friday prayer, but Muslim authorities disagree over whether the job can be done by a minor.[53] An imam appointed to lead Friday prayers may also lead at the five daily prayers; Muslim scholars agree to the leader appointed for five daily services may lead the Friday service as well.[53]
All Muslim authorities hold the consensus opinion that only men may lead prayer for men.[53] Nevertheless women prayer leaders are allowed to lead prayer in front of all-female congregations.

Cleanliness


Storage for shoes
All mosques have rules regarding cleanliness, as it is an essential part of the worshippers' experience. Muslims before prayer are required to cleanse themselves in an ablution process known as wudu. However, even to those who enter the prayer hall of a mosque without the intention of praying, there are still rules that apply. Shoes must not be worn inside the carpeted prayer hall. Some mosques will also extend that rule to include other parts of the facility even if those other locations are not devoted to prayer. Congregants and visitors to mosques are supposed to be clean themselves. It is also undesirable to come to the mosque after eating something that smells, such as garlic.[54]

Dress

Islam requires that its adherents wear clothes that portray modesty. As a result, although many mosques will not enforce violations, both men and women when attending a mosque must adhere to these guidelines. Men are supposed to come to the mosque wearing loose and clean clothes that do not reveal the shape of the body. Likewise, it is recommended that women at a mosque wear loose clothing that covers to the wrists and ankles, and cover their heads with a hijab or other covering. Many Muslims, regardless of their ethnic background, wear Middle Eastern clothing associated with Arabic Islam to special occasions and prayers at mosques.[20]

Concentration

As mosques are places of worship, those within the mosque are required to remain respectful to those in prayer. Loud talking within the mosque, as well as discussion of topics deemed disrespectful, is forbidden in areas where people are praying. In addition, it is disrespectful to walk in front of or otherwise disturb Muslims in prayer.[55] The walls within the mosque have few items, except for possibly Islamic calligraphy, so Muslims in prayer are not distracted. Muslims are also discouraged from wearing clothing with distracting images and symbols so as not to divert the attention of those standing behind them during prayer. In many mosques, even the carpeted prayer area has no designs, its plainness helping worshippers to focus.

Gender separation


Ladies prayer hall in the Khadija Mosque in Berlin, Germany.
Islamic law does not require men and women to be separated in the prayer hall; there is nothing written in the Quran about the issue of space in mosques and gender separation. However, traditional rules have segregated women and men. By traditional rules, women are most often told to occupy the rows behind the men. Traditionalists try to argue that Muhammad preferred women to pray at home rather than at a mosque, and they cite a hadith in which Muhammad supposedly said: "The best mosques for women are the inner parts of their houses," although women were active participants in the mosque started by Muhammad. Muhammad told Muslims not to forbid women from entering mosques. They are allowed to go in. The second Sunni caliph Umar at one time prohibited women from attending mosques especially at night because he feared they may be teased by males, so he required them to pray at home.[56] Sometimes a special part of the mosque was railed off for women; for example, the governor of Mecca in 870 had ropes tied between the columns to make a separate place for women.[15]
Many mosques today will put the women behind a barrier or partition or in another room. Mosques in South and Southeast Asia put men and women in separate rooms, as the divisions were built into them centuries ago. In nearly two-thirds of American mosques, women pray behind partitions or in separate areas, not in the main prayer hall; some mosques do not admit women at all due to the lack of space and the fact that some prayers, such as the Friday Jummah, are mandatory for men but optional for women. Although there are sections exclusively for women and children, the Grand Mosque in Mecca is desegregated.[57]

Non-Muslims in mosques


Barack and Michelle Obama with Grand Imam of Istiqlal Mosque Prof. Kyai al-Hajj Ali Musthafa Ya'qub at the Istiqlal Mosque, Nov. 10, 2010.
Under most interpretations of sharia, non-Muslims may be allowed into mosques, as long as they do not sleep or eat there. A dissenting opinion is presented by followers of the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, who argue that non-Muslims may not be allowed into mosques under any circumstances.[53]

President George W. Bush inside the Islamic Center of Washington, D.C.

The Badshahi Mosque (Royal Mosque) in Lahore, Pakistan, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, is open to non-Muslim tourists.

The Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca in Morocco open to non-Muslims.
The Quran addresses the subject of non-Muslims, and particularly polytheists, in mosques in two verses in its ninth chapter, Sura At-Tawba. The seventeenth verse of the chapter prohibits those who join gods with Allah — polytheists — from entering mosques:
It is not for such as join gods with Allah, to visit or maintain the mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls to infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: In Fire shall they dwell.
—Quran, Sura 9 (At-Tawba), ayah 17[58]
The twenty-eighth verse of the same chapter is more specific as it only considers polytheists in the Sacred Mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca:
O ye who believe! Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.
—Quran, Sura 9 (At-Tawba), ayah 28[59]
According to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, these verses were followed to the letter at the times of Muhammad, when Jews and Christians, considered monotheists, were still allowed to the Masjid al-Haram. However, the Umayyad caliph Umar II later forbade non-Muslims from entering mosques, and his ruling remains in practice in present day Saudi Arabia.[15] Today, the decision on whether non-Muslims should be allowed to enter mosques varies. With few exceptions, mosques in the Arabian Peninsula as well as Morocco do not allow entry to non-Muslims. For example, the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca is one of only two mosques in Morocco currently open to non-Muslims.[60]
However, there are also many other places in the west as well as the Islamic world where non-Muslims are welcome to enter mosques. Most mosques in the United States, for example, report receiving non-Muslim visitors every month.[13] Many mosques throughout the United States welcome non-Muslims as a sign of openness to the rest of the community as well as to encourage conversions to Islam.[61][62]
In modern-day Saudi Arabia, the Grand Mosque and all of Mecca are open only to Muslims. Likewise, the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi and the city of Medina that surrounds it are also off-limits to those who do not practice Islam.[63] For mosques in other areas, it has most commonly been taken that non-Muslims may only enter mosques if granted permission to do so by Muslims and if they have a legitimate reason. All entrants regardless of religious affiliation are expected to respect the rules and decorum for mosques.[20]
In modern Turkey non-Muslim tourists are allowed to enter any mosque, but there are some strict rules. Visiting a mosque is allowed only between prayers; visitors are required to wear long trousers and not to wear shoes, women must cover their heads; visitors are not allowed to interrupt praying Muslims, especially by taking photos of them; no loud talk is allowed; and no references to other religions are allowed (no crosses on necklaces, no cross gestures etc.) Similar rules apply to mosques in Malaysia, where larger mosques that are also tourist attractions (such as the Masjid Negara) provide robes and headscarves for visitors who are deemed inappropriately attired.[64]
In certain times and places, non-Muslims were expected to behave a certain way in the vicinity of a mosque: in some Moroccan cities, Jews were required to remove their shoes when passing by a mosque;[65] in 18th century Egypt, Jews and Christians had to dismount before several mosques in veneration of their sanctity.[66]

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